POWER SECTOR PROFILE
BRUNEI DARUSSALAM: Brunei Darussalam is one of the few economies in ASEAN that is self-sufficient when it comes to energy. The economy is blessed with an abundance of oil and gas resources, and some potential of renewable energy sources such as solar. With a small population, the overall total energy consumption constitutes a small share of energy production and the economy is able to export the bulk of its resources and generate revenue. Based on APERC’s projections in the APEC Energy Demand and Supply Outlook 5th Edition, Brunei Darussalam is likely to remain an energy exporter beyond the year 2035. The revenue from energy sector accounts for more than 60 percent of Brunei Darussalam's Gross Domestic Product.
CAMBODIA: In Cambodia, less than 15% of households have access to electricity (urban 53.6%, rural 8.6%). The share of electricity consumption among various sectors is as follows: residential 36%, industry 24%, administration, public buildings and others 40%. The supply requirements are projected to increase in average by 12.1% per year, and the peak load is expected to reach up to 1,000 MW in 2020. The total primary energy of Cambodia comes from various sources. Biofuel/waste accounts for a major share, followed by oil. Coal and hydropower constitute approx. 1% of supply.
INDONESIA: Indonesia is reorienting its energy production from primarily serving export markets to serve its growing domestic consumption. It was the world's largest exporter of coal by weight in 2012 and the fourth-largest exporter of liquid natural gas (LNG) in 2013. As Indonesia seeks to meet its energy export obligations and earn revenues through international market sales, the country is also trying to meet demand at home. Indonesia's total primary energy consumption grew by 44% between 2002 and 2012. Overall, the energy sector (including electricity) constituted 15.6% of Indonesia's GDP in 2012 and has held roughly constant at this level since 2005. Generation capacity growth in Indonesia has been lower than growth in electricity demand, leading to power shortages and a low electrification ratio. Indonesia has the world's third-largest geothermal electric capacity, although much of this resource potential is still undeveloped. The Indonesian government has set a national goal for electrification: 90% of households will have electricity by 2020.
LAO PDR: Lao’s government’s Seventh Five-Year National Socio-Economic Development Plan (NSEDP), 2011–2015 identifies the energy sector as a strategic development factor, both for the short and longer terms. The primary energy source in the Lao PDR, as in many developing countries in the region, is biomass. However, in terms of final energy use, biomass accounts for less than 60%, petroleum products account for about 17%, electricity for 12%, and charcoal and coal for 14%.
MALAYSIA: Natural gas, oil and coal are the main fuel sources for power in Malaysia. Over the years, the indigenous gas production declined due to maturing fields whereas demand for the fuel is steadily rising especially from industrial users. The Industrial sector was the main user of electricity in Malaysia with a share of 45.9% of the total consumption in 2014. The residential and commercial sectors contributed about 53.5% of the total energy demand in 2014; these two combined are the largest contributors to energy demand and expected to continue to grow in the future based on the current energy needs in Malaysia.
MYANMAR: Myanmar has abundant energy resources, particularly hydropower and natural gas and is one of the five major energy exporters in the region, particularly of natural gas. The country’s primary energy supply includes biofuel, oil, gas, hydropower, and coal. Investment in hydropower and coal-powered plants, gas fields, and oil and gas pipelines is gaining rapidly, evidence of a highly dynamic sector. Presently, only 30% of Myanmar’s population has access to electricity (with that percentage decreasing to around 6% in rural areas). Power cuts and brown outs are a feature of daily life. The power sector is therefore a top priority for the government. Myanmar allows power producers to export the bulk of the power produced domestically to neighboring countries, despite its own unmet demand. The Myanmar government is broadening its strategic approach to fully tap the large potential of Myanmar’s energy sector by inviting foreign technical expertise and foreign investment for participation in its hydropower, oil, and gas subsectors; expanding the capacity of existing liquefied petroleum gas plants and implementing new liquefied natural and petroleum gas production projects; and substituting the use of liquid fuel in the transport sector with compressed natural gas.
PHILIPPINES: Philippines is a net importer of energy due to its relatively small indigenous energy reserves and growing consumption. The primary energy supply of Philippines is sourced from oil, coal, renewables and natural gas. The transport sector is the country’s largest consumer, with 33.4% demand, followed by the industrial and residential sectors with 27.6% and 27.1% respectively; the remainder corresponds to the commercial and agricultural. Considerable indigenous geothermal resources are in the process of being developed, but until then, imported fossil fuels will continue to dominate the energy mix.
THAILAND: Thailand’s energy supply comes mostly from fossil fuels and a large percentage is imported from other countries raising a concern for energy security. The primary sources of energy supply in Thailand are oil, natural gas, biofuel, coal and hydropower. The average electricity consumption by sector. The industrial sector is the largest consuming sector in Thailand, followed by the residential.
VIETNAM: The major sources of energy in Vietnam are coal, petroleum, hydropower and natural gas. A significant number of households are still using traditional solid fuels for heating, lighting and cooking in the residential sector. Vietnam is a net exporter of energy due to its oil and coal resources.