COUNTRY UPDATES ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM

Brunei Darussalam is one of the few economies in ASEAN that is self-sufficient when it comes to energy. The economy is blessed with an abundance of oil and gas resources, and some potential of renewable energy sources such as solar. With a small population, the overall total energy consumption constitutes a small share of energy production and the economy is able to export the bulk of its resources and generate revenue. Based on APERC’s projections in the APEC Energy Demand and Supply Outlook 5th Edition, Brunei Darussalam is likely to remain an energy exporter beyond the year 2035. The revenue from energy sector accounts for more than 60 percent of Brunei Darussalam's Gross Domestic Product.

Brunei Darussalam has greatly benefited on from more than a century of activity in the energy sector, after the first commercial discovery of oil in Seria in 1929. Since then, the energy sector has grown to become a core pillar of wealth of the nation. Brunei Darussalam is a respected and active member of a regional and international community, a relationship which is driven by the ideals set forth by His Majesty's direction of mutual respect and peaceful co-existence. His Majesty's foresight, wisdom and guidance has ensured the nation is able to enjoy the stable, comfortable and peaceful way of life in the nation, which remains on a steady path of economic growth. 

The Energy and Industry Department, Prime Minister's Office (EIDPMO) has set bold targets for the energy sector to realise the sector's full potential, conscious that these will require sustained passion and a significant mobilisation of efforts. As before, the Government of His Majesty the Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Negara Brunei Darussalam through the EIDPMO works hand in hand with its local, regional and international, private and public partners, to ensure that a welcoming and conductive investment environment continues to flourish. 

Sustainability has become key focus on green Brunei. GREEN Brunei is focused on promoting environmental sustainability through youth-led initiatives in the fields of education, conservation and advocacy, said a member of the Legislative Council and Co-founder and Community Engagement Director of the eco-conservation group Yang Berhormat Khairunnisa binti Haji Ash’ari. For the rest of the year, the organisation is looking at strengthening its activities relating to cleanliness, including getting involved with the ‘No Plastic Bag Weekend’ campaign, reducing the use of single-use plastics and promoting community-based recycling, shared in an interview with the Sunday Bulletin in June 2018.

Ministry website: http://www.ei.gov.bn/SitePages/Home.aspx


CAMBODIA: In Cambodia, less than 15% of households have access to electricity (urban 53.6%, rural 8.6%). The share of electricity consumption among various sectors is as follows: residential 36%, industry 24%, administration, public buildings and others 40%. The supply requirements are projected to increase in average by 12.1% per year, and the peak load is expected to reach up to 1,000 MW in 2020. The total primary energy of Cambodia comes from various sources. Biofuel/waste accounts for a major share, followed by oil. Coal and hydropower constitute approx. 1% of supply.


INDONESIA

Indonesia is reorienting its energy production from primarily serving export markets to serve its growing domestic consumption. It was the world's largest exporter of coal by weight in 2012 and the fourth-largest exporter of liquid natural gas (LNG) in 2013. As Indonesia seeks to meet its energy export obligations and earn revenues through international market sales, the country is also trying to meet demand at home. Indonesia's total primary energy consumption grew by 44% between 2002 and 2012. Overall, the energy sector (including electricity) constituted 15.6% of Indonesia's GDP in 2012 and has held roughly constant at this level since 2005. Generation capacity growth in Indonesia has been lower than growth in electricity demand, leading to power shortages and a low electrification ratio. Indonesia has the world's third-largest geothermal electric capacity, although much of this resource potential is still undeveloped. The Indonesian government has set a national goal for electrification: 90% of households will have electricity by 2020.

Directorate General of New, Renewable Energy, and Energy Conservation is under the authority of and responsible to the Minister. A Director General leads the Directorate General of New, Renewable Energy, and Energy Conservation, which is responsible for formulating and conducting policy in the field of development, controlling, and supervision on geothermal energy, bioenergy, various new and renewable energy, and energy conservation. In performing those duties, Directorate General of New, Renewable Energy, and Energy Conservation has the following functions:

  1. formulating policy in the field of development, controlling, and supervision for any activities of business, engineering, occupational safety, environment, as well as the construction of certain facilities and infrastructures on geothermal energy, bioenergy, various new and renewable energy, and energy conservation;
  2. implementing policy in the field of development, controlling, and supervision for any activities of business, engineering, occupational safety, environment, as well as the construction of certain facilities and infrastructures on geothermal energy, bioenergy, various new and renewable energy, and energy conservation;
  3. formulating norms, standards, procedures, and criteria in the field of development, controlling, and supervision for any activities of business, engineering, occupational safety, environment, as well as the construction of certain facilities and infrastructures on geothermal energy, bioenergy, various new and renewable energy, and energy conservation;
  4. providing technical guidance and supervision in the field of development, controlling, and supervision for any activities of business, engineering, occupational safety, environment, as well as the construction of certain facilities and infrastructures on geothermal energy, bioenergy, various new and renewable energy, and energy conservation;
  5. giving evaluation and report in the field of development, controlling, and supervision for any activities of business, engineering, occupational safety, environment, as well as the construction of certain facilities and infrastructures on geothermal energy, bioenergy, various new and renewable energy, and energy conservation;
  6. managing the administration of Directorate General of New, Renewable Energy, and Energy Conservation; and
  7. performing other functions assigned by the Minister.

The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Indonesia has recently launched the national strategic plan 2015-2019 (Renstra Sekretariat Jenderal KESDM Tahun 2015-2019). The original copy provides in Bahasa only. Please download from https://www.esdm.go.id/en/publication/the-strategi....  

Ministry website: https://www.esdm.go.id/en


LAO PDR: Lao’s government’s Seventh Five-Year National Socio-Economic Development Plan (NSEDP), 2011–2015 identifies the energy sector as a strategic development factor, both for the short and longer terms. The primary energy source in the Lao PDR, as in many developing countries in the region, is biomass. However, in terms of final energy use, biomass accounts for less than 60%, petroleum products account for about 17%, electricity for 12%, and charcoal and coal for 14%.


MALAYSIA

Natural gas, oil and coal are the main fuel sources for power in Malaysia. Over the years, the indigenous gas production declined due to maturing fields whereas demand for the fuel is steadily rising especially from industrial users. The Industrial sector was the main user of electricity in Malaysia with a share of 45.9% of the total consumption in 2014. The residential and commercial sectors contributed about 53.5% of the total energy demand in 2014; these two combined are the largest contributors to energy demand and expected to continue to grow in the future based on the current energy needs in Malaysia.

The Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water (KeTTHA) has a vision on Sustainable Energy and Water for all or a Greener Malaysia. The mission is to innovate and Manage Resources Strategically, thereby Ensuring Availability, Reliability and Affordability of Energy and Water Services and to Champion the Application of Green Technology to Promote Green Economy and Green Living.

Objectives

To realize its vision and mission, the objectives of the Ministry are:

The Energy Commission Malaysia also works hand to hand with the Ministry. A statutory body established under the Energy Commission Act 2001, Suruhanjaya Tenaga (ST) or the Energy Commission is responsible for regulating the energy sector, specifically the electricity and piped gas supply industries, in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah. Taking over the role of the Department of Electricity and Gas Supply, the Energy Commission started its operation on January 1, 2002. The main focus of the commission are reliable electricity and gas supply, reasonable costs and safety.

The roles of the Energy Comission is divided into three, namely Economic Regulation, Technical Regulation and Safety Regulation.

Economic Regulation:
To promote economy in the generation, transmission, distribution, supply and use of electricity and in the reticulation and use of gas; promote competition; enable fair and efficient market conduct and prevent the misuse of monopoly or market power in the electricity and piped gas industries.

Technical Regulation:
To ensure security, reliability, efficiency and quality of supply and services in the electricity and piped gas supply industries.

Safety Regulation:
To protect the industry, consumers and public from dangers arising from the generation, transmission, distribution, supply and use of electricity and the distribution, supply and use of piped gas.

Ministry website: http://www.kettha.gov.my 


MYANMAR: Myanmar has abundant energy resources, particularly hydropower and natural gas and is one of the five major energy exporters in the region, particularly of natural gas. The country’s primary energy supply includes biofuel, oil, gas, hydropower, and coal. Investment in hydropower and coal-powered plants, gas fields, and oil and gas pipelines is gaining rapidly, evidence of a highly dynamic sector. Presently, only 30% of Myanmar’s population has access to electricity (with that percentage decreasing to around 6% in rural areas). Power cuts and brown outs are a feature of daily life. The power sector is therefore a top priority for the government. Myanmar allows power producers to export the bulk of the power produced domestically to neighboring countries, despite its own unmet demand. The Myanmar government is broadening its strategic approach to fully tap the large potential of Myanmar’s energy sector by inviting foreign technical expertise and foreign investment for participation in its hydropower, oil, and gas subsectors; expanding the capacity of existing liquefied petroleum gas plants and implementing new liquefied natural and petroleum gas production projects; and substituting the use of liquid fuel in the transport sector with compressed natural gas.


PHILIPPINES

The Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to pursue national development through the two-fold agenda of attaining energy independence and implementing power market reforms, which DOE has affirmed in Philippine Energy Plan (PEP). As energy is vital to quality human life and the country’s economic growth, the Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the formulation of the 2016-2030 sectoral energy roadmaps that will set out specific actions and directions to drive the sector forward. Development of these roadmaps took into consideration the country’s long-term economic growth forecast, wealth of indigenous and natural resources, energy security and reliability goals, as well as measured respond to impacts of climate change.

These roadmaps cover collective efforts of the energy industry in exploring and harnessing all available energy sources in the country. The critical role of both renewable and conventional energy resources will continue to be reinforced as both resources will help mitigate increases in energy demand. Policies will also be in place to ensure that legitimate public concerns on environmental and social impact in the course of developing these resources are addressed.

Promoting energy access is the sector’s contribution to poverty alleviation and people empowerment. Thus, the Electrification Roadmap will ensure 100 percent household access to electricity services by 2020. This would empower local communities and boost countryside economic activities.

Initiatives on demand-side management and energy efficiency measures are considered prime areas of focus to temper the country’s energy requirements.

Each of the roadmaps is cognizant of the critical need to acquire and sustain substantial investments to ensure that energy projects are actualized in a timely manner.

And to further support the growing industrialization of the Philippines, the Department is in the process of formulating a responsive and dynamic energy mix, as well as establishing the local reserve requirements. Said mix is being developed to be technology neutral and will instead identify power requirement based on plant categorization. Based on the new energy mix policy for power generation, the power plant technologies considered per type of operation are as follows:

Once it is firmed-up, the optimal energy mix policy will provide a clear direction for energy developers/investors to plan ahead with its business plans. Said policy can be best applied to island electrification in their power development planning and will provide energy planners and policy makers the platform for exploring the possibility of going nuclear. Likewise, for the energy sector, this policy is expected to address pressing issues such as the high cost of electricity, sporadic power interruptions, limited and unreliable transmission system, delayed and unpredictable permitting process in the application for power projects, limited power electricity market and electrification gaps in off-grid areas. Click to view/download PDF file of the 2016-2030 Philippine Energy Plan. More information, please visit https://www.doe.gov.ph/pep

The Department of Energy (DOE) is also requesting all interested parties to submit their comments on the PESLP-IG, “The Guidelines on PESLP for Energy-Consuming Products” pursuant to Section 2 of Republic Act No. 7638 otherwise known as “ The DOE Act of 1992” and Section 7 of Department Circular No. DC 2016-04-0005 entitled “Declaring the Compliance of Importers, Manufacturers, Distributors and Dealers of Electrical Appliances and other Energy-Consuming Products with the PESLP as a Policy of the Government”; as discussed during the Public Consultations held last 30 March 2017 at the Diplomatic Hall, Marriot Hotel, Pasay City. The inputs or comments received, the EUMB and ERTLS shall assume their concurrence with the draft PESLP-IG. Please visit https://www.doe.gov.ph/pelsp-ig for more details.

Department website: https://www.doe.gov.ph/


THAILAND 

Thailand’s energy supply comes mostly from fossil fuels and a large percentage is imported from other countries raising a concern for energy security. The primary sources of energy supply in Thailand are oil, natural gas, biofuel, coal and hydropower. The average electricity consumption by sector. The industrial sector is the largest consuming sector in Thailand, followed by the residential.

The Ministry of Energy has committed to pursue national development through the two-fold agenda of attaining energy independence and implementing power market reforms, which the Ministry of Energy has affirmed in Energy Plan revised edition 2018-2022 signatory on 24 October 2017 as follows; 

1. Allocate sufficient energy to demand, support sustainable energy and investment

2. Monitor energy business and activities, and energy price

3. Develop sustainable and environmental friendly energy

4. Remain high standard and potential according to Good Governance principles

More information provided in Thai, please visit http://energy.go.th/2015 and http://weben.dede.go.th/webmax/

Ministry website: http://energy.go.th/2015/en/


VIETNAM: The major sources of energy in Vietnam are coal, petroleum, hydropower and natural gas. A significant number of households are still using traditional solid fuels for heating, lighting and cooking in the residential sector. Vietnam is a net exporter of energy due to its oil and coal resources.